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CMJ 345: Small Group Communication

Scholarly Sources

Scholarly sources are those which:

  • 1) are written by scholars
  • 2) vetted in some way for accuracy
  • 3) introduce new concepts, or new ways of thinking about existing concepts.

A good place to find scholarly sources is in academic journals.

Finding Scholarly Sources

The first three links below are specialized, subject databases that can be used to find academic journal articles.  Google Scholar is a tool that covers a wide array of subjects and scholarly materials, including some academic journal articles.

Search Tips

In the databases:

  • Use Boolean terms to craft your searches
  • Functional Perspective AND Small Group Communication


  • Use controlled vocabulary (subject headings)
    • The databases have controlled vocabulary (called Subject Headings) assigned by the database editors to each article.  Once you identify a subject heading, it can help narrow your search results.


In Google Scholar:


  • Use AND to connect concepts (in capital letters)


  • Put quotes around phrases


APA Citation

Here are the formats for APA 7th edition journal article citations:

Reference list format:

Author last name, First name initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Journal Title, volume(issue), pages. doi



Bonito, J. A. (2019). A bottom-up approach to examining group-level communication patterns: A multilevel latent profile analysis of functional group interaction. Human Communication Research45(2), 202–225. https://doi-org/10.1093/hcr/hqy020



You are often able to grab pre-made citations through the databases and Google Scholar.  Be aware that there are often errors in these citations.  For example, I grabbed the above citation from Google Scholar, and I had to fix both the title and the doi to make the citation correct.

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